CONSTRUCTIVISM: A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH TO TEACHING AND LEARNING
The problem surrounding traditional approach to teaching is of concern to experts in the area of teacher education. It is observed that this approach appears to reduce learners to passive receiver of hard wire knowledge prepared by someone who is more matured. The teacher is perceived as a fearful person who is believed to be the repository of knowledge and that has been commissioned to give instruction without allowing learners to participate during the teaching and learning activities. Traditional approach to teaching can be said to pave ways for brainstorming, indoctrination, conditioning and initiation which all denied the learners the ability to exercise their freedom to ask questions and as well appeared to be mechanical. One attempts to argue that Learner learns by himself when something new is taught. The learner has prior knowledge and experiences, which often determined by learner’s social and cultural environment. Knowledge is not mechanically acquired but actively constructed within the constraints and offerings of the learning environment. The mechanistic positivist accounts of learners as recipients of hard-wired knowledge were supplemented by accounts of learners as active knowledge constructor. This study examines why constructivism is important, it dwells also on a constructivist classroom and student centred activities. Finally, the paper justifies Socrates and Plato as proponents of constructivism. Based on this, one will argue in line with Van Delen and Brittle cited by Adeleye (2013) that teaching is the guidance of pupil through planned activities so that he may acquire the richest possible from his experience. That learning is not achieved by cajoling, hypnotizing and forcing the learner to learn but a voluntary activity of the learner by constructing knowledge and meaning from his experience. This is a qualitative research carried out through the method of philosophical analysis.